Advanced Mechanical Ventilation

Monitoring the interactions between patient and ventilator relies on:
The pressure curve
The flow curve
The volume curve
The interactions between pressure and flow
The flow curve is:
Always positive
Always negative
Positive or negative depending on the mode of ventilation
Positive or negative depending on the breath phase
An analysis of the curves is used to:
A) Assess the patient’s respiratory mechanics
B) Optimize the ventilator settings
C) Both A and B
D) Predict the gas exchange
Peak expiratory flow is influenced by:
Airways resistance
Elastic recoil of lungs and chest wall
All of the above
All statements regarding hysteresis are true except:
Hysteresis is the volume difference between the inflation and deflation limbs
Hysteresis is the area between the inflation and deflation limbs
Hysteresis is greater in patients with high potential for recruitment
Hysteresis is mainly due to recruitment during inflation and de-recruitment during deflation in ARDS patients
An incomplete pressure-volume loop indicates:
A patient-triggered breath
A leak in the ventilator/ patient circuit
A malfunction of the monitor
The upper inflection point on the pressure-volume curve represents:
The tidal volume
The pressure at which a large number of alveoli are recruited
The pressure at which the alveoli become overdistended
The end of inspiration phase
Regarding the flow-volume loops the following statement is correct:
They are rarely used
They are most commonly used to evaluate changes in resistance of the airway
They depict time
They can be used only in spontaneous breathing
The weaning of ventilator in cats and dogs:
Is achieved at the same success rates as in people
Can only be attempted once
Adequate gas exchange and ability to initiate a breath are pre-requirements for starting the weaning
Will be attempted at pre-set time frames from the initiation of the mechanical support
Continuous positive airway pressure:
Improves oxygenation by increasing functional residual capacity
Is an invasive method of controlled mechanical ventilation
Requires the use of a custom-made mask
Is not helpful in spontaneous breathing trials