Basics of Obstetrics

What is the number one reason for dystocia in the bitch?
Fetal malformation
Absolute Fetal Oversize
Uterine Inertia
Pelvic anomalies of the bitch
A pregnant Labrador bitch is presented to you. She is not showing any signs of labour. The owners tell you they are very worried as it is already day 66 of her pregnancy but nothing has happened yet. What is the FIRST thing you do?
Emergency caesarean section because the puppies might be dead already
Enquire if progesterone was measured and from what day on the owner started counting the days of pregnancy
Do an x-ray to see how many puppies are inside
Measure progesterone, if it’s over 2ng/ml the owners can take her home again
A Yorkshire Terrier breeder calls you at 2am. Her bitch is in labour and is straining for 5 hours but hasn’t produced a puppy yet. She has oxytocin at home and asks you how much she can give to the dog to help with the whelping. What do you advise?
0.5 IU/kg i.m., if there still is no puppy after 30 minutes she can increase the dose to 1 IU/kg
Oxytocin will not work in her case as the dog clearly shows signs of primary uterine inertia
She mustn’t give oxytocin as the dam might have obstructive dystocia or absolute fetal oversize due to a singleton pregnancy
She must wait for another two hours before she starts medical intervention and then start with 2 IU/kg i.m.
A Bitch presents in stage II labour. 5 pups are born, she shows abdominal straining 3 hrs later. An x-ray from day 60 showed 6 pups. Digital palpation during examination shows a pup in caudal presentation & placenta stuck in the birth canal. What next?
Use lubricants and carefully try to extract the fetus by traction after removing the placenta
Use calcium-gluconate and oxytocin to get the dam to push the fetus out as she is probably having secondary uterine inertia
Perform an emergency caesarian section as there is no other way to deliver a fetus in caudal presentation
Carefully attach whelping-ropes on the hind legs and pull in caudoventral direction
An owner calls you that her pregnant dog is showing abdominal straining and panting. Clear watery fluids came out of her vulva about one hour ago and her temperature is 39°C. In which stage of labour is the dog currently?
Stage I
Stage II
Stage III
The dog is not yet in labour as there is no drop in temperature
You measured progesterone in a Chihuahua bitch to optimize breeding dates. She is 66 days pregnant today after the day of ovulation but she is not showing any signs of labour. Which important differential diagnosis comes to mind?
Early placental detachment
Everything is alright, Chihuahuas always have a prolonged gestation
Singleton pregnancy
You do a pregnancy diagnosis on an English Bulldog and count 4-5 fetuses via ultrasound. It’s the dog’s first litter and the owners are very inexperienced. What do you tell the owners regarding the whelping process?
You tell the owners that the whelping won’t be a problem because there is more than one fetus
You suggest the owners should try a normal birth at home as you don’t expect any difficulties in this breed
You explain to the owners that there is a high chance their dog will need a caesarean section
You expect difficulties during the whelping and give the owners some oxytocin to inject in case of dystocia
A Mastiff had a drop in body temp 24 hrs ago. She is panting, showing nesting but no abdominal straining or fetal fluids have passed. Gynaecological exam shows green discharge, the US shows multiple vital pups with heart rates around 180 bpm. What next?
I perform an emergency caesarean section because the green discharge is a sign for placental separation
I send the dog home because the puppies’ heart rates are good
I observe the bitch a bit longer because the puppies are all alive and the dog is only in stage I of labour
I try to induce uterine contractions with calcium-gluconate and oxytocin because I suspect uterine inertia
German Shepherd presents in stage II labour. 8 pups have been born; you can feel 2 via abdominal palpation. Last pup born 4 hours ago, and no straining. Exam reveals green discharge, no puppy in the birth canal. You do not have an US machine. What next?
I perform an emergency caesarean section because the green discharge is a sign for placental separation
I try to induce uterine contractions with calcium-gluconate and oxytocin after having ruled out fetal obstruction
I tell the owners that the remaining puppies are probably already dead because green discharge is always a bad sign
I tell the owners that the green discharge is normal between puppies and send them home
A Frenchie is brought in day 62 after LH peak. You did the artificial insemination so are certain about dates. Showing nesting, stopped eating but no sign of labour. Exam shows closed cervix, progesterone is 4ng/ml. Owners want a C-Section. What next?
You do the c-section because this breed can’t give birth naturally
You tell the owners that the bitch is already in stage II of labour and that it’s too late for an elective c-section
You send her back home as she is not ready for a c-section yet
You do the c-section because the progesterone is already at 4ng/ml